Thursday, May 22, 2008

.NET Interview Questions (Microsoft technology interview questions)

Basic .NET Framework questions

What is IL? (Twist :- What is MSIL or CIL , What is JIT?)
What is the CLR?
What is the CTS?
What is CLS(Common Language Specification)?
What is Managed Code?
What is Assembly ?
What are different types of Assembly?
What is NameSpace?
What is Difference between NameSpace and Assembly?
If you want to view a Assembly how to you go about it (Twist : What is ILDASM ?) ?
What is Manifest?
Where is version information stored of a assembly ?
Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?
What is GAC (Twist :- What are situations when you register .NET assembly in GAC ?) ?
What is concept of strong names (Twist :- How do we generate strong names or what is the process of generating string names , What is use of SN.EXE , How do we apply strong names to assembly ? , How do you sign an assembly ?)?
How to add and remove a assembly from GAC?
What is Delay signing ?
What is garbage collection?
Can we force garbage collector to run ?
What is reflection?
What are different type of JIT ?
What are Value types and Reference types ?
What is concept of Boxing and Unboxing ?
What’s difference between VB.NET and C# ?
What’s difference between System exceptions and Application exceptions?
What is CODE Access security?

NET Interoperability
 

How can we use COM Components in .NET (Twist : What is RCW ?)?
Once i have developed the COM wrapper do i have to still register the COM in registry?
How can we use .NET components in COM (Twist :- What is CCW (COM callable wrapper) ?, What caution needs to be taken in order that .NET components is compatible
with COM ?) ?
How can we make Windows API calls in .NET?
When we use windows API in .NET is it managed or unmanaged code ?
What is COM ?
What is Reference counting in COM ?
Can you describe IUKNOWN interface in short ?
Can you explain what is DCOM ?
How do we create DCOM object in VB6?
How to implement DTC in .NET ?
How many types of Transactions are there in COM + .NET ?
How do you do object pooling in .NET ?
What are types of compatibility in VB6?

Threading

What is Multi-tasking ?
What is Multi-threading ?
What is a Thread ?
Did VB6 support multi-threading ?
Can we have multiple threads in one App domain ?
Which namespace has threading ?
Can you explain in brief how can we implement threading ?
How can we change priority and what the levels of priority are provided by .NET ?
What does Addressof operator do in background ?
How can you reference current thread of the method ?
What's Thread.Sleep() in threading ?
How can we make a thread sleep for infinite period ?
What is Suspend and Resume in Threading ?
What the way to stop a long running thread ?
How do i debug thread ?
What's Thread.Join() in threading ?
What are Daemon thread's and how can a thread be created as Daemon?
When working with shared data in threading how do you implement synchronization ?
Can we use events with threading ?
How can we know a state of a thread?
what is a monitor object?
what are wait handles ?(Twist :- What is a mutex object ?)
what is ManualResetEvent and AutoResetEvent ?
What is ReaderWriter Locks ?
How can you avoid deadlock in threading ?
What’s difference between thread and process?

Remoting and Webservices

What is an application domain?
What is .NET Remoting ?
Which class does the remote object has to inherit ?
What are two different types of remote object creation mode in .NET ?
Describe in detail Basic of SAO architecture of Remoting?
What is the situation you will use singleton architecture in remoting ?
What is fundamental of published or precreated objects in Remoting ?
What are the ways client can create object on server in CAO model ?
Are CAO stateful in nature ?
In CAO model when we want client objects to be created by “NEW” keyword is there any precautions to be taken ?
Is it a good design practice to distribute the implementation to Remoting Client ?
What is LeaseTime,SponsorshipTime ,RenewonCallTime and LeaseManagerPollTime?
Which config file has all the supported channels/protocol ?
How can you specify remoting parameters using Config files ?
Can Non-Default constructors be used with Single Call SAO?(Twist :- What are the limitation of constructors for Single call SAO ?)
How can we call methods in remoting Asynchronously ?
What is Asynchronous One-Way Calls ?
What is marshalling and what are different kinds of marshalling ?
What is ObjRef object in remoting ?
What is a WebService ?
What is UDDI ?
What is DISCO ?
What is WSDL?
What the different phase of acquiring a proxy object in Webservice ?
What is file extension of Webservices ?
Which attribute is used in order that the method can be used as WebService ?
What are the steps to create a webservice and consume it ?
Do webservice have state ?

Caching Concepts

What is application object ?
What’s the difference between Cache object and application object ?
How can get access to cache object ?
What are dependencies in cache and types of dependencies ?
Can you show a simple code showing file dependency in cache ?
What is Cache Callback in Cache ?
What is scavenging ?
What are different types of caching using cache object of ASP.NET?
How can you cache different version of same page using ASP.NET cache object ?
How will implement Page Fragment Caching ?
What are ASP.NET session and compare ASP.NET session with classic ASP session variables?
Which various modes of storing ASP.NET session ?
Is Session_End event supported in all session modes ?
What are the precautions you will take in order that StateServer Mode work properly ?
What are the precautions you will take in order that SQLSERVER Mode work properly ?
Where do you specify session state mode in ASP.NET ?
What are the other ways you can maintain state ?
What are benefits and Limitation of using Hidden fields ?
What is ViewState ?
Do performance vary for viewstate according to User controls ?
What are benefits and Limitation of using Viewstate for state management?
How an you use Hidden frames to cache client data ?
What are benefits and Limitation of using Hidden frames?
What are benefits and Limitation of using Cookies?
What is Query String and What are benefits and Limitation of using Query Strings?

OOPS

What is Object Oriented Programming ?
What’s a Class ?
What’s a Object ?
What’s the relation between Classes and Objects ?
What are different properties provided by Object-oriented systems ?(Twist :- Can you explain different properties of Object Oriented Systems?)(Twist :- What’s difference between Association , Aggregation and Inheritance relationships?)
How can we acheive inheritance in VB.NET ?
What are abstract classes ?
What’s a Interface ?
What is difference between abstract classes and interfaces?
What is a delegate ?
What are event’s ?
Do events have return type ?
Can event’s have access modifiers ?
Can we have shared events ?
What is shadowing ?
What’s difference between Shadowing and Overriding ?
What’s difference between delegate and events?
If we inherit a class do the private variables also get inherited ?
What are different accessibility levels defined in .NET ?
Can you prevent a class from overriding ?
What’s the use of “MustInherit” keyword in VB.NET ?
Why can not you specify accessibility modifier in Interface ?
What are similarities between Class and structure ?
What’s a difference between Class and structure’s ?
What does virtual keyword mean ?
What are shared (VB.NET)/Static(C#) variables?
What is Dispose method in .NET ?
Whats the use of “OverRides” and “Overridable” keywords ?
Where are all .NET Collection classes located ?
What is ArrayList ?
What’s a HashTable ?(Twist :- What’s difference between HashTable and ArrayList ? )
What are queues and stacks ?
What is ENUM ?
What is nested Classes ?
What’s Operator Overloading in .NET?
In below sample code if we create a object of class2 which constructor will fire first ?
What’s the significance of Finalize method in .NET?
Why is it preferred to not use finalize for clean up?
How can we suppress a finalize method?
What’s the use of DISPOSE method?
How do I force the Dispose method to be called automatically, as clients can forget to call Dispose method?
In what instances you will declare a constructor to be private?

ASP.NET

 What’s the sequence in which ASP.NET events are processed ?
In which event are the controls fully loaded ?
How can we identify that the Page is PostBack ?
How does ASP.NET maintain state in between subsequent request ?
What is event bubbling ?
How do we assign page specific attributes ?
Administrator wants to make a security check that no one has tampered with ViewState , how can we ensure this ?
What’s the use of @ Register directives ?
What’s the use of SmartNavigation property ?
What is AppSetting Section in “Web.Config” file ?
Where is ViewState information stored?
What’s the use of @ OutputCache directive in ASP.NET?
How can we create custom controls in ASP.NET ?
How many types of validation controls are provided by ASP.NET ?
Can you explain what is “AutoPostBack” feature in ASP.NET ?
How can you enable automatic paging in DataGrid ?
What’s the use of “GLOBAL.ASAX” file ?
What’s the difference between “Web.config” and “Machine.Config” ?
What’s a SESSION and APPLICATION object ?
What’s difference between Server.Transfer and response.Redirect ?
What’s difference between Authentication and authorization?
What is impersonation in ASP.NET ?
Can you explain in brief how the ASP.NET authentication process works?
What are the various ways of authentication techniques in ASP.NET?
How does authorization work in ASP.NET?
What’s difference between Datagrid , Datalist and repeater ?
From performance point of view how do they rate ?
What’s the method to customize columns in DataGrid?
How can we format data inside DataGrid?
How will decide the design consideration to take a Datagrid , datalist or repeater ?
Difference between ASP and ASP.NET?
What are major events in GLOBAL.ASAX file ?
What order they are triggered ?
Do session use cookies ?
How can we force all the validation control to run ?
How can we check if all the validation control are valid and proper ?
If you have client side validation is enabled in your Web page , Does that mean server side code is not run?
Which JavaScript file is referenced for validating the validators at the client side ?
How to disable client side script in validators?
I want to show the entire validation error message in a message box on the client side?
You find that one of your validation is very complicated and does not fit in any of the validators , so what will you do ?
What is Tracing in ASP.NET ?
How do we enable tracing ?
What exactly happens when ASPX page is requested from Browser?
How can we kill a user session ?
How do you upload a file in ASP.NET ?
How do I send email message from ASP.NET ?
What are different IIS isolation levels?

.NET Architecture

What are design patterns ?
What’s difference between Factory and Abstract Factory Pattern’s?
What’s MVC pattern? (Twist: - How can you implement MVC pattern in ASP.NET? )
How can we implement singleton pattern in .NET?
How do you implement prototype pattern in .NET?(Twist: - How to implement cloning in .NET ? , What is shallow copy and deep copy ?)
What are the situations you will use a Web Service and Remoting in projects?
Can you give a practical implementation of FAƇADE patterns?
How can we implement observer pattern in .NET?
What is three tier architecture?
Have you ever worked with Microsoft Application Blocks, if yes then which?
What is Service Oriented architecture?

ADO.NET

What is the namespace in which .NET has the data functionality classes ?
Can you give a overview of ADO.NET architecture ?
What are the two fundamental objects in ADO.NET ?
What is difference between dataset and datareader ?
What are major difference between classic ADO and ADO.NET ?
What is the use of connection object ?
What is the use of command objects and what are the methods provided by the command object ?
What is the use of dataadapter ?
What are basic methods of Dataadapter ?
What is Dataset object?
What are the various objects in Dataset ?
How can we connect to Microsoft Access , Foxpro , Oracle etc ?
How do we connect to SQL SERVER , which namespace do we use ?
How do we use stored procedure in ADO.NET and how do we provide parameters to the stored procedures?
How can we force the connection object to close after my datareader is closed ?
I want to force the datareader to return only schema of the datastore rather than data ?
How can we fine tune the command object when we are expecting a single row or a single value ?
Which is the best place to store connectionstring in .NET projects ?
What are steps involved to fill a dataset ?(Twist :- How can we use dataadapter to fill a dataset ?)
What are the various methods provided by the dataset object to generate XML?
How can we save all data from dataset ?
How can we check that some changes have been made to dataset since it was loaded ?(Twist :- How can cancel all changes done in dataset ? ,How do we get changed value dataset ? )
How add/remove row’s in “DataTable” object of “DataSet” ?
What’s basic use of “DataView” ?
What’s difference between “DataSet” and “DataReader” ?
How can we load multiple tables in a DataSet ?
How can we add relation’s between table in a DataSet ?
What’s the use of CommandBuilder ?
What’s difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking ?
How many way’s are there to implement locking in ADO.NET ?
How can we perform transactions in .NET?
What’s difference between Dataset. clone and Dataset. copy ?
Which are namespaces for ADO.NET?
Can you give a overview of ADO.NET architecture ?
What are the two fundamental objects in ADO.NET ?
What is difference between dataset and datareader ?
What are major difference between classic ADO and ADO.NET ?
What is the use of connection object ?
What are the methods provided by the command object ?
What is the use of dataadapter ?
What are basic methods of Dataadapter ?
What is Dataset object?
What are the various objects in Dataset ?
How can we connect to Microsoft Access , Foxpro , Oracle etc ?
What’s the namespace to connect to SQL Server?
How do we use stored procedure in ADO.NET?
How can we force the connection object to close?
I want to force the datareader to return only schema?
Can we optimize command object when there is only one row?
Which is the best place to store connectionstring ?
What are steps involved to fill a dataset ?
What are the methods provided by the dataset for XML?
How can we save all data from dataset ?
How can we check for changes made to dataset?
How can we add/remove row’s in “DataTable” object of “DataSet” ?
What’s basic use of “DataView” ?
What’s difference between “DataSet” and “DataReader” ?
How can we load multiple tables in a DataSet ?
How can we add relation’s between table in a DataSet ?
What’s the use of CommandBuilder ?
What’s difference between “Optimistic” and “Pessimistic” locking ?
How many way’s are there to implement locking in ADO.NET ?
How can we perform transactions in .NET?
What’s difference between Dataset. clone and Dataset. copy ?
Whats the difference between Dataset and ADO Recordset?

.NET Integration


What are steps to load a .NET code in SQL SERVER 2005?
How can we drop a assembly from SQL SERVER?
Are changes made to assembly updated automatically in database?
Why do we need to drop assembly for updating changes?
How to see assemblies loaded in SQL Server?
I want to see which files are linked with which assemblies?
Does .NET CLR and SQL SERVER run in different process?
Does .NET controls SQL SERVER or is it vice-versa?
Is SQLCLR configured by default?
How to configure CLR for SQL SERVER?
Is .NET feature loaded by default in SQL Server?
How does SQL Server control .NET run-time?
What’s a “SAND BOX” in SQL Server 2005?
What is a application domain?
How are .NET Appdomain allocated in SQL SERVER 2005?
What is Syntax for creating a new assembly in SQL Server 2005?
Do Assemblies loaded in database need actual .NET DLL?
Does SQL Server handle unmanaged resources?
What is Multi-tasking ?
What is Multi-threading ?
What is a Thread ?
Can we have multiple threads in one App domain ?
What is Non-preemptive threading?
What is pre-emptive threading?
Can you explain threading model in SQL Server?
How does .NET and SQL Server thread work?
How are exception in SQLCLR code handled?
Are all .NET libraries allowed in SQL Server?
What is “Hostprotectionattribute” in SQL Server 2005?
How many types of permission level are there for an assembly?
Can you name system tables for .NET assemblies?
Are two version of same assembly allowed in SQL Server?
How are changes made in assembly replicated?
Is it a good practice to drop a assembly for changes?
In one of the projects following steps where done, will it work?
What does Alter assembly with unchecked data signify?
How do I drop an assembly?
Can we creat SQLCLR using .NET framework 1.0?
While creating .NET UDF what checks should be done?
How do you define a function from the .NET assembly?
Can compare between T-SQL and SQLCLR ?
With respect to .NET is SQL SERVER case sensitive?
Does case sensitive rule apply for VB.NET?
Can nested classes be accessed in T-SQL?
Can we have SQLCLR procedure input as array?
Can object datatype be used in SQLCLR?
How’s precision handled for decimal datatypes in .NET?
How do we define INPUT and OUTPUT parameters in SQLCLR?
Is it good to use .NET datatypes in SQLCLR?
How to move values from SQL to .NET datatypes?
What is System.Data.SqlServer?
What is SQLContext?
Can you explain essential steps to deploy SQLCLR?
How do create function in SQL Server using .NET?
How do we create trigger using .NET?
How to create User Define Functions using .NET?
How to create User Defined Create aggregates using .NET?
What is Asynchronous support in ADO.NET?
What is MARS support in ADO.NET?
What is SQLbulkcopy object in ADO.NET ?
How to select range of rows using ADO.NET?

SQL SERVER

What is normalization? What are different type of normalization?
What is denormalization ?
What is a candidate key ?
What are different types of joins and whats the difference between them ?
What are indexes and What is the difference between clustered and nonclustered indexes?
How can you increase SQL performance ?
What is the use of OLAP ?
What's a measure in OLAP ?
What are dimensions in OLAP ?
What are levels in dimensions ?
What are fact tables and dimension tables in OLAP ? (Twist :- can you explain the star schema for OLAP ? )
What is DTS?
What is fillfactor ? (Twist :- When does plage split occurs ?)
What is RAID and how does it work ?
What's the difference between DELETE TABLE and TRUNCATE TABLE commands?
What are the problems that can occur if you do not implement locking properly in SQL SERVER ?
What are different transaction levels in SQL SERVER ?(Twist :- what are different types of locks in SQL SERVER ?)
What are different locks in SQL SERVER ?
Can we suggest locking hints to SQL SERVER ?
What is LOCK escalation?
What are the different ways of moving data/databases between servers and databases in SQL Server?
What are advantages of SQL 2000 over SQl 7.0 ?
What is the difference between a HAVING CLAUSE and a WHERE CLAUSE?
What is difference between UNION and UNION ALL SQL syntax ?
How can you raise custom errors from stored procedure ?
What is ACID fundamental and what are transactions in SQL SERVER ?
What is DBCC?
What is purpose of Replication ?
What are different type of replication supported by SQL SERVER ?
What is BCP utility in SQL SERVER ?
What are different types of triggers in SQl SERVER 2000 ?
If we have multiple AFTER Triggers on table how can we define the sequence of the triggers ?
What is SQl injection ?

UML

What is UML?
How many types of diagrams are there in UML ?(Twist :- Explain in short all types of diagrams in UML ?)
What are advantages of using UML?(Twist: - What is Modeling and why UML ?)
What’s the sequence of UML diagrams in project?(Twist: - How did you implement UML in your project?)
Just a small Twist: - Do I need all UML diagrams in a project?
Give a small brief explanation of all Elements in activity diagrams?
Explain Different elements of a collaboration diagram ?
Explain Component diagrams ?
Explain all parts of a deployment diagram?
Describe various components in sequence diagrams?
What are the element in State Chart diagrams ?
Describe different elements in Static Chart diagrams ?
Explain different elements of a Use Case ?(Twist: - What’s difference between Activity and sequence diagrams?(I leave this to the readers))

Project Management

What is project management?
Is spending in IT project’s constant through out the project?
Who is a stakeholder ?
Can you explain project life cycle ?(Twist :- How many phases are there in software project ?)
Are risk constant through out the project ?
Can you explain different software development life cycles ?
What is triple constraint triangle in project management ?
What is a project baselines ?
What is effort variance?
How is normally a project management plan document organized ?
How do you estimate a project?
What is CAR (Causal Analysis and Resolution)?
How do you handle change request?
What is internal change request?
What is difference between SITP and UTP in testing ?
What are the software you have used for project management?
What are the metrics followed in project management?(Twist: - What metrics will you look at in order to see the project is moving successfully?)
You have people in your team who do not meet there deadlines or do not perform what are the actions you will take ? (Twist :- Two of your resources have conflict’s between them how would you sort it out ?)
How do you start a project?
How did you do resource allocations?
How do you do code reviews ?

Database Concepts

What is a database or database management systems (DBMS)?
What’s difference between DBMS and RDBMS ?
What are CODD rules?
Is access database a RDBMS?
What’s the main difference between ACCESS and SQL SERVER?
What’s the difference between MSDE and SQL SERVER 2000?
What is SQL SERVER Express 2005 Edition?
What is SQL Server 2000 Workload Governor?
What’s the difference between SQL SERVER 2000 and 2005?
What are E-R diagrams?
How many types of relationship exist in database designing?
Can you explain Fourth Normal Form?
Can you explain Fifth Normal Form?
What’s the difference between Fourth and Fifth normal form?
Have you heard about sixth normal form?
What is Extent and Page?
What are the different sections in Page?
What are page splits?
In which files does actually SQL Server store data?
What is Collation in SQL Server?
Can we have a different collation for database and table?

SQL

Revisiting basic syntax of SQL?
What are “GRANT” and “REVOKE’ statements?
What is Cascade and Restrict in DROP table SQL?
What is a DDL, DML and DCL concept in RDBMS world?
What are different types of joins in SQL?
What is “CROSS JOIN”?
You want to select the first record in a given set of rows?
How do you sort in SQL?
How do you select unique rows using SQL?
Can you name some aggregate function is SQL Server?
What is the default “SORT” order for a SQL?
What is a self-join?
What's the difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE ?
Select addresses which are between ‘1/1/2004’ and ‘1/4/2004’?
What are Wildcard operators in SQL Server?
What’s the difference between “UNION” and “UNION ALL” ?
What are cursors and what are the situations you will use them?
What are the steps to create a cursor?
What are the different Cursor Types?
What are “Global” and “Local” cursors?
What is “Group by” clause?
What is ROLLUP?
What is CUBE?
What is the difference between “HAVING” and “WHERE” clause?
What is “COMPUTE” clause in SQL?
What is “WITH TIES” clause in SQL?
What does “SET ROWCOUNT” syntax achieves?
What is a Sub-Query?
What is “Correlated Subqueries”?
What is “ALL” and “ANY” operator?
What is a “CASE” statement in SQL?
What does COLLATE Keyword in SQL signify?

Notification Services


What are notification services?
What are basic components of Notification services?
Can you explain architecture of Notification Services?
Which are the two XML files needed for notification services?
What is Nscontrols command?
What are the situations you will use “Notification” Services?

Service Broker


What do we need Queues?
What is “Asynchronous” communication?
What is SQL Server Service broker?
What are the essential components of SQL Server Service broker?
What is the main purpose of having Conversation Group?
How to implement Service Broker?
How do we encrypt data between Dialogs?
 

XML Integration


What is XML?
What is the version information in XML?
What is ROOT element in XML?
If XML does not have closing tag will it work?
Is XML case sensitive?
What’s the difference between XML and HTML?
Is XML meant to replace HTML?
Can you explain why your project needed XML?
What is DTD (Document Type definition)?
What is well formed XML?
What is a valid XML?
What is CDATA section in XML?
What is CSS?
What is XSL?
What is Element and attributes in XML?
Can we define a column as XML?
How do we specify the XML data type as typed or untyped?
How can we create the XSD schema?
How do I insert in to a table which has XSD schema attached to it?
What is maximum size for XML datatype?
What is Xquery?
What are XML indexes?
What are secondary XML indexes?
What is FOR XML in SQL Server?
Can I use FOR XML to generate SCHEMA of a table and how?
What is the OPENXML statement in SQL Server?
I have huge XML file which we want to load in database?
How to call stored procedure using HTTP SOAP?
What is XMLA ?

Database Optimization


What are indexes?
What are B-Trees?
I have a table which has lot of inserts, is it a good database design to create indexes on that table?
What are “Table Scan’s” and “Index Scan’s”?
What are the two types of indexes and explain them in detail?
What is “FillFactor” concept in indexes?
What is the best value for “FillFactor”?
What are “Index statistics”?
How can we see statistics of an index?
How do you reorganize your index, once you find the problem?
What is Fragmentation?
How can we measure Fragmentation?
How can we remove the Fragmented spaces?
What are the criteria you will look in to while selecting an index?
What is “Index Tuning Wizard”?
What is an Execution plan?
How do you see the SQL plan in textual format?
What is nested join, hash join and merge join in SQL Query plan?
What joins are good in what situations? 298

Transaction and Locks 


What is a “Database Transactions “?
What is ACID?
What is “Begin Trans”, “Commit Tran”, “Rollback Tran” and “Save Tran”?
What are “Checkpoint’s” in SQL Server?
What are “Implicit Transactions”?
Is it good to use “Implicit Transactions”?
What is Concurrency?
What kind of problems occurs if we do not implement proper locking strategy?
What are “Dirty reads”?
What are “Unrepeatable reads”?
What are “Phantom rows”?
What are “Lost Updates”?
What are different levels of granularity of locking resources?
What are different types of Locks in SQL Server?
What are different Isolation levels in SQL Server?
If you are using COM+ what “Isolation” level is set by default?
What are “Lock” hints?
What is a “Deadlock” ?
What are the steps you can take to avoid “Deadlocks” ?
How can I know what locks are running on which resource?

 

Credit goes to SREENIVAS.S

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